Pavilions in Lake Yangcheng Park, Kunshan


In the last two decades, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China has transformed itself from an ancient canal town to a modern industrial city. The west edge of its built-up area is reaching Lake Yangcheng. As the only public space on the lake shore, a park has been constructed. Three pavilions (Buildings B,C,D) were planned in the east area of the park. The landscape form designed by others already contained many contrasting motifs. To avoid making the environmental form too noisy, we proposed that the three pavilions share one prototypal form and structural system, while the non-structural elements of each building could be adjusted according to the particular location and views. With their identical functions, the similar appearance of the pavilions will help visitors to quickly locate needed service, but they will eventually find that each building is different. Building D has been constructed.

Integration between Indoor and Outdoor Spaces

Containing mostly indoor spaces, park buildings in the Western tradition tended to be solid objects surrounded by green space. The temples in the 18th-century English Landscape Gardens are examples. In contrast, Chinese traditional garden buildings took the form of courtyards which combine both interior and exterior spaces. We have observed that today’s Chinese people still enjoy the courtyard that, within a short distance, provides users both the comfort and convenience in a room and the refreshment of nature. Therefore, we attempt to create a modern version of such an integrated space in this project.

We intentionally avoided the stereotyped approach that treats indoor and outdoor spaces as separated systems, such as placing a patio “outside of” a room. The three 36-by-14 meters building plans seem to be composed of conventional rooms and corridors. But the “rooms” include indoor spaces, semi-outdoor (having a roof but no walls) spaces, and outdoor spaces under trellises. The three indoor spaces (rental, snack shop and public restrooms) were not grouped into one chunk, but rather mingled with the outdoor spaces to allow visitors use them conveniently. We selected long-span rigid frame for the building structure to eliminate any columns inside the building, permitting us to place non-bearing walls and roofs freely so that indoor and outdoor spaces could be better integrated.

Multi-functional Facades

The south and north elevations of each building are made of a 36-by-3.34 meter double-skin glass facade. The chords of the trussed rigid frame are 500mm apart from each other, which becomes the cavity space between the double skins. Modern double-skin glass façade has been used extensively since the 1990’s. However, its use have been limited within high-rise office buildings and mainly for the purpose of energy saving. Our design tries to add a few new functions into it.

First, we added two tiers of shelves in the cavity to allow potted plants to grow there. The “green” walls will resonate with the greenery outside, relating the building to the park. The café or gift shop which will occupy the rental space can also use part of the walls to display their merchandize or decorations. Secondly, the glass skins are made of sand-blasted glass with small transparent areas. The locations of the transparent areas in the two skins are overlapped. People will see at least three kinds of depths, the frosted front layer, the cavity with the frosted back layer, and a complete transparent opening. These “windows” will form varied overlapping effects when the viewer moves. Each building has a different frosting pattern to form its own identity.

Meanwhile, the walls also perform its energy saving functions. The top portion of the exterior skin and the entire interior skin are openable. Kunshan has a mild climate with clear seasonal differences. In spring and autumn, windows on both skins can be opened to afford natural ventilation. In winter, the static air in the cavity reduces heat loss when all windows are closed. In summer, only the windows in the outer skin are opened to discharge the upward flow of cavity air, reducing heat gain in the rooms. The shelves only cover two thirds of the cavity space to make room for the ventilation. For Buildings B and C, the southern sides of the air-conditioned rooms are shaded by trellises. For Building D, the shelves in the cavity are changed to wood panels to shade the sun.

Upon completion, we find an unexpected visual effect: the plants behind the frosted and transparent glasses resemble a Chinese water color painting of varied shades. This will become more obvious when the plants (pothos) climb cross the entire glass wall.

Project Data


West Ma-an-shan Road (between West Huan-cheng Road and Hu-bin Road), Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China

Project Period 2009-2010

Building Area 160 square meters

Client Kunshan City Construction, Investment and Development Co., Ltd.


Architecture: Miao Design Studio (Design Architect), Pu Miao; Hanjia Design Group, Shanghai (Architect of Record), Jiang Ninqing

Structure: Shanghai Yuangui Structural Design Inc., Zhang Yewei, Liu Xiao

Engineering: Hanjia Design Group, Shanghai, Guo Zhong, Yu Yang, Wu Qiuyan

Photographer Pu Miao


Domus(Italy, Chinese Edition,10/2011), "Green", a special volume

建筑设计界中目前流行这样一种做法,就是将一个复杂庞大的工程设计归结到一个与使用功能或基地无多少关系,但外观独特的符号形象上。这种假大空的做法规避了特定环境中人的复杂功能需要, 同时在形式上也通常缺少真正的创意。西方有些建筑评论家很恰当地称之为“一句话”建筑(“One-liner”)。在当前的我国,由于建筑基本上成了权力与资本的广告牌,这种现象就更为常见。“一句话”建筑的对立面是什么呢?英国建筑评论家查尔斯·詹克斯(Charles Jencks)在他的经典著作《现代建筑运动》中开宗明义地宣告了他认为的好建筑,其形式应同时能让人从多个层面上来解读,如功能,美观,建造技术,基地,成本等等。就是在每个层面中,也能通过创造性的折衷来同时容纳不同的侧重点。詹克斯针对这种建筑总结道:“我们一次次重访它们,不一定是为了它们的某一种特定意义,而更是因为多种意义以动人并深厚的方式交织融合成一个有力的组合。我将这种特质称之为多重意义 . . .”。如柯布西耶的马赛公寓在有限的基地中容纳了三百多户家庭以及公共服务设施, 在创造舒适的家园与限制城市蔓延之间取得了平衡。再以公寓阳台边缘的一个L型构件为例,詹克斯发现它可以同时被看做桌子、栏板结构支撑、杂物储柜、建筑外立面上的一个构图元素等等。绝大多数成熟的建筑体系(如我国的传统建筑)中都具有丰富的复合意义。以下介绍一下我在一个景观建筑的设计中创造复合意义的心得。

江苏省昆山市在最近二十年中从江南水乡古镇演变成了一个新兴的工业城市。其建成区的西端现在已经延伸到阳澄湖边。在这里新建了一个公园,将成为城市在湖滨的唯一一块公共绿地,以满足公众与附近的酒店顾客休闲的需要,特别是在每年秋天品尝大闸蟹的旅游旺季。公园中东面一个长方形区域中要求建造三个服务设施(B、C、D栋)。由其他设计公司负责的公园景观设计已经采用了多种对比强烈的几何形式。 为了避免加上建筑后整个公园的环境形式过于喧闹, 我们提出让这三个建筑共用一个形式母题及结构体系。同时在每个单体中再根据周边环境及朝向等做局部变化,局部调整只涉及隔断等非结构构件。由于三个建筑的功能完全一样,它们远看相似的外貌有助于游客尽快发现他们需要的服务。但当游客走近各个建筑后,会发现每个单体实际上各自不同。目前D栋已建成。


西方园林中的建筑多被设计成被绿化环绕的实体,实体内包含的主要是室内空间。十八世纪英国风景式园林(Landscape Gardens)中的园亭(Temples)是典型的例子。与此不同,我国的传统园林建筑大多为同时包含室内外空间的庭院式组合。我们在观察中发现,我国当代居民大多仍旧喜爱庭院,因为它能在一个小范围内让人同时享受到室内外空间各自的优点,像室内的舒适方便与室外的亲近自然。我们因此在本设计中尝试用现代手法来重现这样的室内外复合空间。










地点 江苏省昆山市马鞍山西路(环城西路与湖滨路之间)

时间 2009-2010

建筑面积 160平方米

业主 江苏省昆山城市建设投资发展有限公司


建筑:缪朴设计工作室/汉嘉设计集团 缪朴,蒋宁清

结构:上海源规建筑结构设计事务所 张业巍,刘潇

设备:汉嘉设计集团 郭忠,于洋,吴秋燕

摄影 缪朴


Domus(意大利,中文版,10/2011),"绿界" 别册

Click on an image to enlarge it 欲放大图像请点击画面

The west end of the building opens into the ellipse square, the Snack Shop is to the left. 建筑西端开向椭圆广场,左边为小卖。

The outdoor public Resting space in the building, Rental is at the right.


Northeast view of the building 从东北角望建筑全景

South elevation, part of the windows are open. 建筑南立面,部分窗被开启。

The outdoor public Resting space in the building, seen from the south


The double-skin wall as seen from the inside of Rental


The double-skin wall, seen from the interior 从室内看双重外墙

The double-skin wall contains the rigid frame. 双重外墙同时包容刚架结构。

Double-skin wall section 双重外墙剖面

Double-skin wall: energy-saving in different seasons


The three kinds of depths of the double-skin wall


Site Plan 总平面

First Floor Plan 一层平面

Section 剖面