Teahouse, Xiaolangdi Dam Park, Luoyang, Henan 河南洛阳小浪底公园茶室

The main purpose of the park is to allow tourists to view the largest dam across the Yellow River. People can also swim in a lake made by enlarging the original river course (river water now exits through a new course north of the park). The teahouse is located between the lake (west of which looms the dam) and a small hill of about 15 meters high. Behind the hill lie other attractions of the park.

The teahouse has four components. The two curved ones contain 11 tea/dining rooms, each sits at a different level, ranging from +1.00 to +11.00 meters (ground is +0.00). The third component lies at the northern side to serve the swimmers. The fourth component, a tower, houses stairs and a dumbwaiter. The dumbwaiter allows each waiter to reach his/her farthest table without climbing more than one story. At the bottom of the tower are the kitchen and a dining room for handicapped visitors. Several outdoor dining areas are created for the additional summer users. The two curved components have painted site-cast concrete frame with in-fill glass walls, the other two components mainly have brick bearing walls. The selection of the material and construction system took into consideration of the local workers’ skills and material availability.

In contrast to the European gardens which treat buildings as isolated sculpture, we want to integrate architectural space into the landscape touring experience, a concept borrowed from the Chinese garden tradition. The tea-room wings are actually two continuous “stepped spaces” within which almost no walls exist. At the elevations of +5.00 and +10.00 meters, two bridges connect the stepped spaces to the middle and the top of the hill behind the building. Thus tourists from either the hill or the lake can continue their trip through the teahouse or pick a tea room to sit down. With the long sides of the stepped spaces facing the main scenery, the changing heights afford people different picture frames with focuses varying from the dam to the island and bridges in the lake. In this way the building becomes part of the tour path of the park and provides fresh ways to look at the scenery.

In treating the corporal form of this building, we want to explore a unique geometry observed in Chinese calligraphy, traditional dance, building and furniture forms. It is the gentle, spontaneous curves which grow out of straight lines, suggesting both a variation from and continuity of the orthogonal form. Such a geometry differs from the Western formal tradition which emphasizes self-complete, regular curves (such as circles) and contrast between curved and orthogonal geometries.

The colors of the building are based on the popular tones used in local farmers’ houses and ancient temples. They appear bright but actually are never pure, which creates an effect that is both strong and silent. Such colors work well with the surrounding hills of yellow earth and rocks of a dark red hue. The standard Modernist colors of black-white-silver would have been too pale in the local context. To sum up, it is our intention in this design to create a localized version of Modernism.

Project Data

Location  Xiaolangdi Dam Park, Luoyang, Henan Province, China

Project Period  2000-2002

Floor Area  5,382 square meters

Client  Xiaolangdi Bureau of Construction Administration

Designer
Architecture: Pu Miao (Design Architect), Shanghai Landscape Architecture Design Institute (Architect of Record)
Structure: Xu Ruiqing (Shanghai Landscape Architecture Design Institute, same below)
Plumbing: Chen Huijun
Electrical Engineering: Zhou Leyan
Park Planning: Zhou Zaichun

Publication

Architectural Journal (3/2003), Time+Architecture (4/2004)

黄河经过河南洛阳附近的小浪底大坝后,从原河道北面与之平行的新辟水道泻出。大坝脚下的一段原河道除了为水坝排泄正常渗水外,其周围52.6公顷的区域被开发为公园。按照上海市园林设计院周在春先生的规划,部分河道被拓宽为湖面,并在湖与原河道相交处安排了一座茶室。从该处西望正对大坝及其脚下的湖中岛屿。向北是供游泳者使用的湖滨沙滩。东面为高十多米的小山丘,山后为顺一道溪流建造的黄河各水利工程模型。沿基地南面全长则是原来的黄河。我有幸受周先生邀请与园林院同仁提供了茶室的设计。在甲方代表陈玲女士的认真监督下,本工程在2002年秋基本按设计建成。

该茶室由四个条型体块组成。其中两个在立面上呈曲线升起的体块构成茶室的主体,内含11个楼面标高从1.00米依次递增到11.00米的餐厅。每个餐厅可坐8-10人,全部面对大坝及湖景,但高度的变化使各个餐厅的景观从以湖中曲桥,小山为主过渡到以雄伟的大坝为中心。除了北端的三个外,所有餐厅均仅用矮墙分隔,从而在室内形成一个连续的台阶型空间。在此“大台阶”的标高5.00米及10.00处各有一道天桥延伸到建筑背后的小山山腰及山顶上,从下面上来的游人可由此继续游览山后的其它景观(对从山后过来的游人则可探索湖景)。

第三个条型体块平卧在建筑北面,内含供游泳者使用的更衣室,室外淋浴小院等。第四个体块从上述两个曲线体块之间垂直升起,内设分别供游人及服务员专用的楼梯,食梯及备餐间等。食梯及备餐间的位置安排使服务员最多只需爬相当于普通建筑中的一层楼就可以到达最远的餐桌。楼梯间的脚下为厨房,其南设有一处供残废人使用的餐厅。

两个曲线体块的建筑形式为露明的钢筋混凝土梁柱,朝大坝一面的填充墙全部为透明或磨砂玻璃。柱身设在玻璃面的外面,期望能对西晒起一定遮阳作用。另两个体块外形则采用贴面砖的实墙,辅以铝窗。

由于此公园在夏季的游人远远超过其它季节,本设计利用上述四个体块的互相穿插,在建筑的西,北,南三面界定出三个高度不同的室外用餐区域。其中建筑西面的室外平台可容纳大量的快餐顾客。更衣室体块屋顶上的咖啡座可供游泳者穿着游泳裤随意小酌。最后,建筑南面的一个小型屋顶餐厅不仅提供了安静的气氛,同时正对原来的黄河。夕阳西下时,在茶室暗红色的梁柱(来自洛阳白马寺的色彩)衬托下,河对岸古老的黄土峭壁及苍翠的草木显得分外夺目。

工程资料 

地点  河南省洛阳市小浪底大坝公园

时间  2000-2002

建筑面积  5,382 平方米

业主  小浪底建设管理局

设计
建筑: 缪朴(上海市园林设计院顾问)
结构: 徐瑞倩(上海市园林设计院,下同)
给排水: 陈惠君
电气: 周乐燕
公园规划: 周在春

发表

建筑学报(3/2003), 时代建筑(4/2004)



Click on an image to enlarge it  欲放大图像请点击画面

West view of the entire building  西面全景

Partial southwest view  西南面局部外景

Night view of the southeast side 西南面局部夜景

Partial east view  东面局部外景

View from northeast corner toward the south
由东北角向南望

Interior of the stepped space
台阶空间

One of the stepped tea rooms  台阶空间中的一个餐厅(或茶座)

View from the southern roof terrace toward the lake, looking through an opening in the stepped volume
由南面屋顶餐厅透过台阶空间上门洞望湖中小岛


From the southern roof terrace looking toward the Yellow River and the cliff behind
由南面屋顶餐厅望黄河对岸峭壁



Site Plan  总平面

First Floor Plan  一层平

Third Floor Plan  三层平面
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