Pavilions in Lake Yangcheng Park, Kunshan 昆山阳澄湖公园景观建筑

In the last two decades, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China has transformed itself from an ancient canal town to a modern industrial city. The west edge of its built-up area is reaching Lake Yangcheng. As the only public space on the lake shore, a park has been constructed. Three pavilions (Buildings B,C,D) were planned in the east area of the park. The landscape form designed by others already contained many contrasting motifs. To avoid making the environmental form too noisy, we proposed that the three pavilions share one prototypal form and structural system, while the non-structural elements of each building could be adjusted according to the particular location and views. With their identical functions, the similar appearance of the pavilions will help visitors to quickly locate needed service, but they will eventually find that each building is different. Building D has been constructed.

Integration between Indoor and Outdoor Spaces

Containing mostly indoor spaces, park buildings in the Western tradition tended to be solid objects surrounded by green space. The temples in the 18th-century English Landscape Gardens are examples. In contrast, Chinese traditional garden buildings took the form of courtyards which combine both interior and exterior spaces. We have observed that today’s Chinese people still enjoy the courtyard that, within a short distance, provides users both the comfort and convenience in a room and the refreshment of nature. Therefore, we attempt to create a modern version of such an integrated space in this project.

We intentionally avoided the stereotyped approach that treats indoor and outdoor spaces as separated systems, such as placing a patio “outside of” a room.  The three 36-by-14 meters building plans seem to be composed of conventional rooms and corridors. But the “rooms” include indoor spaces, semi-outdoor (having a roof but no walls) spaces, and outdoor spaces under trellises. The three indoor spaces (rental, snack shop and public restrooms) were not grouped into one chunk, but rather mingled with the outdoor spaces to allow visitors use them conveniently. We selected long-span rigid frame for the building structure to eliminate any columns inside the building, permitting us to place non-bearing walls and roofs freely so that indoor and outdoor spaces could be better integrated.

Multi-functional Facades

The south and north elevations of each building are made of a 36-by-3.34 meter double-skin glass facade. The chords of the trussed rigid frame are 500mm apart from each other, which becomes the cavity space between the double skins. Modern double-skin glass façade has been used extensively since the 1990’s. However, its use have been limited within high-rise office buildings and mainly for the purpose of energy saving. Our design tries to add a few new functions into it.

First, we added two tiers of shelves in the cavity to allow potted plants to grow there.  The “green” walls will resonate with the greenery outside, relating the building to the park. The café or gift shop which will occupy the rental space can also use part of the walls to display their merchandize or decorations. Secondly, the glass skins are made of sand-blasted glass with small transparent areas. The locations of the transparent areas in the two skins are overlapped. People will see at least three kinds of depths, the frosted front layer, the cavity with the frosted back layer, and a complete transparent opening. These “windows” will form varied overlapping effects when the viewer moves. Each building has a different frosting pattern to form its own identity.

Meanwhile, the walls also perform its energy saving functions. The top portion of the exterior skin and the entire interior skin are openable. Kunshan has a mild climate with clear seasonal differences. In spring and autumn, windows on both skins can be opened to afford natural ventilation. In winter, the static air in the cavity reduces heat loss when all windows are closed. In summer, only the windows in the outer skin are opened to discharge the upward flow of cavity air, reducing heat gain in the rooms. The shelves only cover two thirds of the cavity space to make room for the ventilation. For Buildings B and C, the southern sides of the air-conditioned rooms are shaded by trellises. For Building D, the shelves in the cavity are changed to wood panels to shade the sun.

Upon completion, we find an unexpected visual effect: the plants behind the frosted and transparent glasses resemble a Chinese water color painting of varied shades. This will become more obvious when the plants (pothos) climb cross the entire glass wall.

Project Data 

Location
West Ma-an-shan Road (between West Huan-cheng Road and Hu-bin Road), Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China

Project Period  2009-2010

Building Area  160 square meters

Client  Kunshan City Construction, Investment and Development Co., Ltd.

Designer
Architecture: Miao Design Studio (Design Architect), Pu Miao; Hanjia Design Group, Shanghai (Architect of Record), Jiang Ninqing
Structure: Shanghai Yuangui Structural Design Inc., Zhang Yewei, Liu Xiao
Engineering: Hanjia Design Group, Shanghai, Guo Zhong, Yu Yang, Wu Qiuyan

Publication

Domus(Italy, Chinese Edition,10/2011), "Green", a special volume

建筑设计界中目前流行这样一种做法,就是将一个复杂庞大的工程设计归结到一个与使用功能或基地无多少关系,但外观独特的符号形象上。这种假大空的做法规避了特定环境中人的复杂功能需要, 同时在形式上也通常缺少真正的创意。西方有些建筑评论家很恰当地称之为“一句话”建筑(“One-liner”)。在当前的我国,由于建筑基本上成了权力与资本的广告牌,这种现象就更为常见。“一句话”建筑的对立面是什么呢?英国建筑评论家查尔斯·詹克斯(Charles Jencks)在他的经典著作《现代建筑运动》中开宗明义地宣告了他认为的好建筑,其形式应同时能让人从多个层面上来解读,如功能,美观,建造技术,基地,成本等等。就是在每个层面中,也能通过创造性的折衷来同时容纳不同的侧重点。詹克斯针对这种建筑总结道:“我们一次次重访它们,不一定是为了它们的某一种特定意义,而更是因为多种意义以动人并深厚的方式交织融合成一个有力的组合。我将这种特质称之为多重意义  . . .”。如柯布西耶的马赛公寓在有限的基地中容纳了三百多户家庭以及公共服务设施, 在创造舒适的家园与限制城市蔓延之间取得了平衡。再以公寓阳台边缘的一个L型构件为例,詹克斯发现它可以同时被看做桌子、栏板结构支撑、杂物储柜、建筑外立面上的一个构图元素等等。绝大多数成熟的建筑体系(如我国的传统建筑)中都具有丰富的复合意义。以下介绍一下我在一个景观建筑的设计中创造复合意义的心得。

江苏省昆山市在最近二十年中从江南水乡古镇演变成了一个新兴的工业城市。其建成区的西端现在已经延伸到阳澄湖边。在这里新建了一个公园,将成为城市在湖滨的唯一一块公共绿地,以满足公众与附近的酒店顾客休闲的需要,特别是在每年秋天品尝大闸蟹的旅游旺季。公园中东面一个长方形区域中要求建造三个服务设施(BCD栋)。由其他设计公司负责的公园景观设计已经采用了多种对比强烈的几何形式。 为了避免加上建筑后整个公园的环境形式过于喧闹, 我们提出让这三个建筑共用一个形式母题及结构体系。同时在每个单体中再根据周边环境及朝向等做局部变化,局部调整只涉及隔断等非结构构件。由于三个建筑的功能完全一样,它们远看相似的外貌有助于游客尽快发现他们需要的服务。但当游客走近各个建筑后,会发现每个单体实际上各自不同。目前D栋已建成。

室内外空间的复合

西方园林中的建筑多被设计成被绿化环绕的实体,实体内包含的主要是室内空间。十八世纪英国风景式园林(Landscape Gardens)中的园亭(Temples)是典型的例子。与此不同,我国的传统园林建筑大多为同时包含室内外空间的庭院式组合。我们在观察中发现,我国当代居民大多仍旧喜爱庭院,因为它能在一个小范围内让人同时享受到室内外空间各自的优点,像室内的舒适方便与室外的亲近自然。我们因此在本设计中尝试用现代手法来重现这样的室内外复合空间。

现以上目标的策略是在布置平面时,不再先入为主地把室内外空间当成两个割裂的大类来处理,如仅仅在建筑的“外面”布置露台。粗看一下这三个36X14米的平面,它们好像都是由传统的房间与走廊组成。但实际上这些“房间”中既有全封闭的室内空间,也有有顶无墙的半室外空间,更有一大部分是头上只是花架的室外空间。三个室内空间(出租、小卖、公共厕所)也不再被捏合成一块,而是按最方便游人使用的方式与多个室外休息空间交错布置。为此我们选用了大跨度刚架结构体系,平面中没有任何柱子,使我们得以在三个平面中根据不同的人流及景观,自由布置形成室内外空间的非承重隔墙与屋顶。

们设想大多数公众在这里需要的是一个可以随便坐坐,有绿荫而又不必付费的场所。所以将建筑中心最大的一个室外“房间”保留给这一功能。多项研究证明,提供饮食有助于搞活公共空间。我们因此在该休息空间靠近建筑外公共空间(如D栋旁的椭圆广场)的角落上布置了一个出售冷饮茶水的小卖。全室内的出租房间将用做咖啡厅或礼品店,相信其中的活动也会蔓延到周围的室外空间。

多功能外墙


个兼容多种空间的长方形体又是通过复合外墙来界定的。建筑的南、北立面各由一道36米长,3.34米高的双重玻璃外墙形成。本建筑中采用的刚架是钢格构式的,其中梁、柱部分均由中距500的双肢钢管组成。这一500间距正好成为双重外墙的中空空间。现代版的双重玻璃外墙从上世纪九十年代开始就在西方被广泛使用。但基本上局限在高层办公楼中,使用的目的也集中在节约能源上。在本工程的应用中,我们尝试给它增加两种新的意义。


先,我们在双重外墙中设计了二层搁板,使这个中空空间可用来生长盆载植物。这两道绿色”外墙与室外绿化相互影映,将突显建筑身处公园中的特点。出租中的商店或咖啡厅也可利用部分中空空间陈列它们的商品。如是内装有色液体的玻璃器皿之类,在室外阳光投射下将特别吸引室内顾客的注意。

次,我们在内外墙面上均使用了磨砂玻璃,但在特定位置不做磨砂,留出透明的局部。这些“窗口”在内外层上的位置并被错开。无论是从室内或室外看去,该外墙体系呈现出至少三个层次的通透感:半透明的外层,在透明外层后面的半透明内层,以及内外层均透明的洞口。当观众移动时,这些窗口还会彼此掩映。加上中空中的植物,创造出多变的视觉形象。由于磨砂图案在三栋建筑中各不相同,这一设计也为每个单体提供了可识别的个性。

此同时,我们没有忘记双重玻璃外墙的节能功能。两道外墙的外层上部与内层的全部都是可开启的。昆山的气候温和但四季分明,在室外气候宜人的春秋季可打开双层上的窗,充分利用自然通风。在冬季可同时关闭内外层上的窗。由于内外层均采用保温玻璃(外层并用了LOW-E镀层),使中空空间成为热传导的一道阻碍。在炎夏可只开启外层窗,利用上下热压差在中空空间中产生垂直通风,同时也降低对室内气温的影响。为了保证空气的垂直流动,中空中的搁板只覆盖了三分之二的空腔平面。BC栋中的空调室内空间均位于建筑北侧,其南立面外有大片花架遮阳。D栋的出租房间虽位于南侧,但室外有许多高大树木。我们同时将该栋南立面的搁板设计为有助于遮阳的木板(暂未实施)。对于与室外或半室外“房间”相邻的双重外墙,我们在墙脚设计了通气槽,保证中空空间在夜间无人时也可通风。

建筑建成后,我们在外墙中还发现一个没有预料到的视觉现象。从室内向外看,在透明玻璃后面或贴在磨砂玻璃上的花草叶片与远离磨砂玻璃的植物会产生如同水墨画中的干、湿笔对比,前者深黑明晰,后者如淡墨晕染。我们祈愿日后的建筑使用者能让这些新购置的绿萝(Pothos)逐渐长大,让它们能越过搁架向上下蔓延,使整个外墙更像一幅绿色的画。

工程资料 

地点  江苏省昆山市马鞍山西路(环城西路与湖滨路之间) 

时间  2009-2010

建筑面积  160平方米

业主  江苏省昆山城市建设投资发展有限公司

设计

建筑:缪朴设计工作室/汉嘉设计集团 缪朴蒋宁清

结构:上海源规建筑结构设计事务所 张业巍刘潇

设备:汉嘉设计集团 郭忠于洋吴秋燕

发表

Domus(意大利,中文版,10/2011),"绿界" 别册
Click on an image to enlarge it  欲放大图像请点击画面

The west end of the building opens into the ellipse square, the Snack Shop is to the left.
建筑西端开向椭圆广场,左边为小卖。


The outdoor public Resting space in the building, Rental is at the right.
从东南角望建筑内的室外休息空间,右面是出租空间。


Northeast view of the building
从东北角望建筑全景


South elevation, part of the windows are open.
建筑南立面,部分窗被开启。
 
The outdoor public Resting space in the building, seen from the south
从南望建筑内的室外休息空间


The double-skin wall as seen from the inside of Rental
在出租(室内装修尚未做)内望南面的双重外墙


The double-skin wall, seen from the interior
从室内看双重外墙



The double-skin wall contains the rigid frame.
双重外墙同时包容刚架结构。



Double-skin wall section
双重外墙剖面


Double-skin wall: energy-saving in different seasons
双重外墙在不同季节中的节能功能

The three kinds of depths of the double-skin wall
从室外看双重外墙的三种通透层次


Site Plan  总平面


First Floor Plan  一层平面

Section  剖面

















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